GSH

global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming

by:GSH     2020-10-05
Abstract: objective to evaluate the global annual consumption of forest and forest land for tobacco roasting from 1990 to 1995;
Estimated share of tobacco in total deforestation;
Tobacco grade-
Countries affected by tobacco deforestation;
It also pointed out that the impact of tobacco on forest resources is harmful to the environment.
National design and production-
Depending on the increase/increase in the wood biomass involved and the wood consumption of tobacco, specific estimates of the need and depletion of forests/woodlands are required.
Comparison of secondary statistical results of forest coverage, deforestation and population development.
The results estimate that 200000000 hectares of forest/woodland are cleared annually through tobacco cultivation.
Deforestation occurs mainly in the developing world, reaching 1.
7% or 4 of global net forest cover losses.
6% of the country\'s total deforestation.
It is estimated that 35 countries with tobacco severity, high and moderate levels are present or are experiencing environmental hazards
Deforestation mainly in southern Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and East Asia, South America and the Caribbean.
Conclusion the hypothesis that deforestation from tobacco production has no significant negative impact must be questioned.
To conduct empirical validation, it is estimated that the global model of tobacco is important
Relevant environmental damage should be included in the international research agenda on global environmental change, making it an integral and reasonable component of tobacco control policies.
Objective to evaluate the global annual consumption of forests and woodlands for tobacco roasting from 1990 to 1995;
Estimated share of tobacco in total deforestation;
Tobacco grade-
Countries affected by tobacco deforestation;
It also pointed out that the impact of tobacco on forest resources is harmful to the environment.
National design and production-
Depending on the increase/increase in the wood biomass involved and the wood consumption of tobacco, specific estimates of the need and depletion of forests/woodlands are required.
Comparison of secondary statistical results of forest coverage, deforestation and population development.
The results estimate that 200000000 hectares of forest/woodland are cleared annually through tobacco cultivation.
Deforestation occurs mainly in the developing world, reaching 1.
7% or 4 of global net forest cover losses.
6% of the country\'s total deforestation.
It is estimated that 35 countries with tobacco severity, high and moderate levels are present or are experiencing environmental hazards
Deforestation mainly in southern Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and East Asia, South America and the Caribbean.
Conclusion the hypothesis that deforestation from tobacco production has no significant negative impact must be questioned.
To conduct empirical validation, it is estimated that the global model of tobacco is important
Relevant environmental damage should be included in the international research agenda on global environmental change, making it an integral and reasonable component of tobacco control policies.
Determinants of tobacco
Related damage in potential causes of tobacco
The related deforestation is (a)
Use of farm Wood-
The basic process of curing the crop, that is, drying the leaves, and (b)
Shift global production to low end
Cost-producing countries in the developing world usually have a fragile natural environment.
There is no consideration here, but especially in tropical conditions, the agricultural practice of topping and eliminating tobacco is relevant, that is, to design a tobacco factory as a consumer product with high nicotine content.
As a result, a unique amount of nutrients is absorbed from the soil, and tobacco often requires fertile soil (virgin)
Land clearance often provides soil that involves deforestation.
2,11 tobacco planting requires a large amount of wood to be used for various purposes such as baking, as well as rods and rods for the construction of the barn.
According to the compilation and normalization of national wood usage data, the annual average of global tobacco Wood usage is 19.
Cubic meters per ton of tobacco (medianu2009= 18. 9, modeu2009= 1. 0).
To varying degrees, timber is commonly used in almost all developing countries.
According to the percentage of global tobacco production in the first half of the 1990 s, the main consumer of wood is dark air/sunlight-Baked tobacco (15%), burley (12%), flue-cured (12%)
And Oriental tobacco (9%), with fire-
Healing and darkness, and light air
Healing tobacco as a secondary consumer (around 1% each).
As a result, about half of the world\'s tobacco production (3.
8 million tons)
Relying on a total of 26 timber inputs.
6 million cubic meters, or 11.
4 million tons of solid wood.
Although the flue-
Roasted tobacco leaves accounted for only 12% of global wood production, accounting for 60% of solid wood consumption, of which Wood use accounted for the main part (table 1).
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 1 annual global assessment of deforestation due to wood use in tobacco planting, since the medium term
1960. There has been a shift in global tobacco production, with some socio-ecological consequences.
Compared with 1700, almost all of the world\'s tobacco production was concentrated in Brazil, parts of the Caribbean and the Chesapeake Colonies in North America, with colonial rule collapsing from the middle
In the 19 th century, tobacco was planted almost all over the world. 12-
At present, the number of world trade is mainly from some parts of the developing world.
Free days, long enough dry season (
Harvest and curing crops are allowed), and low-
The cost conditions of production are optimal.
By the end of 1990, about 4-
At present, five of the more than 120 developing countries are located in developing countries, equivalent to 90% of the global land under tobacco15.
In general, the natural environment in which tobacco is grown usually drops more in Highlands than in low lands, and more in dry areas than in wet ecosystems (semi-arid to semi-humid climates).
12. 13 in this climate, ecosystems are generally vulnerable, indicating that tobacco cultivation occurs mainly in areas threatened by the environment or at risk.
Although the forest
The high land covered is an important environmental area, and watershed management is important to prevent large areas.
The scale, off-site Impact of arid areas \"is one of the most vulnerable ecosystems in the world, and cyclical drought and drought risks make it more vulnerable.
\"16 arid regions account for 30% of the world\'s land area and live in a large part of the world\'s poorest population (
Therefore, it is particularly sensitive to increasing cash --
Produce crops such as tobacco).
It is estimated that 70% of the world\'s dry land is affected by land degradation due to climate and human activity.
The main reason for mankind
Considered a massive land degradation
Large-scale deforestation, mainly for agricultural use, and over-exploitation of forests and woodlands by collecting fuelwood.
16,17 relatively dry and highland areas are very easy to cut down forests because they offer more favorable conditions for agriculture than wet low-lying or rainforest areas.
The tropical trend recently observed is \"deforestation [has]
The progress of the Highlands is more than that of the low, \"17. The areas under dry forests are about to become\" the most endangered major tropical ecosystems \".
18. From an overview of the social drivers of tobacco cultivation, a new emerging critical model can be assumed.
The following global indicators of tobacco and cultivated land development provide indicative evidence.
Most of the land under tobacco (63%)
Is located in low-of translation is: what mean?
Income Country (sub)
Tropical regions, and the average rate of global tobacco expansion from 1982 to 1996 (0. 4% each year)
More than in these areas (2% per year).
15. Although during the same period, the expansion rate of cultivated land was 6 times that of tobacco (2. 4% each year)
In more than 20 developing countries, most of which are in the developing world, accounting for more than half of global production, land under tobacco is growing at a higher rate --
Pakistan, the Philippines, China, Zimbabwe and Malawi, for example, have been up to 10 times, and in some cases even more (
In Zambia and Uganda, for example).
15. Although the current share of all arable land in the world is only 0.
6%, well above the average in major tobacco industries.
Growth areas in East Asia and other developing world (1. 5%)
Southern Tropical Africa (2. 3%).
Less than half of the land under tobacco (42%)
Planted with naturally cured varieties, using natural changes in temperature and humidity to dry leaves through air and sunlight
Artificial maintenance varieties-
People who use heat from external sources such as wood and coal (fire/flue-curing)—
Most of the world\'s tobacco-growing land (58%)
Even more so in the developing world (73%).
10. 19 research design assumptions on wood use, deforestation and greening the main assumptions used to calculate tobacco
Induced deforestation is provided here.
First of all, unless designated as a plantation, Wood is generally considered to be extracted from native forests and is considered as a \"free commodity\" requiring no replacement costs.
Second, only in the case of a shortage of wood will the market price of wood rise to an attractive level for plantation investment.
Third, until most natural forests are destroyed, there will not be enough investment in plantation forestry.
\"8 fourth, the percentage of tobacco farmers who are known to have no private wood fuel cultivation (
Global average of 58%)
10 is used to produce tobacco using wood extracted from raw forests and forests.
Fifth, although timber and deforestation are used in some tobacco
Growth in developed countries (
Defined by FAO16)—
Romania, Japan and South Africa.
It is speculated that there is no wood in natural vegetation in developed countries.
Growth stocks are usually represented by solid measures to dry up and grow stocks (GS)
Wood biomass, usually the commercially available part of the tree, is given (solid)
The volume of wood standing in a specific area such as one hectare (0. 01u2009km2).
\"If more than the increment is cut, some of the growing stocks will be removed and the increment will be reduced in the next few years.
If this \"over-cutting\" continues, the reduction of growing trees will accelerate and the forest will eventually be completely destroyed.
8 although this process can be called forest degradation, the focus of this paper is on deforestation, which means that there will be no continued excessive deforestation (
Only a reduction in increments)
, But completely remove natural woody biomass (
Running out of growing inventory).
There are three main GS specifications that represent the low, medium and high woody biomass potential of all major ecosystems on the continent to choose from. 20 The (median)value of 27 (air-dry)
Tons per hectare (t/ha)
Medium Woody biomass was used because this type of vegetation is most common in the natural environment in which tobacco grows.
Other GS rates represent \"low woody biomass potential\", I . e. , wooded grasslands, bushes, jungles, and bushes (
Average 8 THB t/ha)
And \"high wood biomass potential \"-
Wet tropical forest, evergreen and mountain forest, coastal and gallery forest, swamp forest and mangrove forest (122u2009t/ha ).
The selected GS rate represents the average of 16 different lands
Contains (a)
\"Mosaic of low woody biomass \",(b)
Any type of woodland, I . e. , open, seasonal, dry and humid, and (c)
\"Mosaic of high woody biomass\", that is, mosaic of evergreen forest land, mosaic of cultivation and Forest/forest land, cultivation and forest regeneration, and mosaic of Highland cultivation.
The African value used is considered a growth environment similar to that of other continents.
Annual average increment term annual average increment (MAI)
Refers to the annual increase in the total volume of trees, usually expressed in the solid volume per hectare.
It is often used to indicate yield because it represents the long term
Sustainable quantity of wood that can be harvested.
8 average 0. 5 (air-dry)
T/ha is evaluated as the median of 16 land cover levels 20 per year (hypothetical)sustained-
Yield area of natural medium wood biomass required to provide wood.
For plantations, two different MAI values are used to evaluate (hypothetical)
The plantation was established.
The MAI of temperate plantations is usually within the range of 2-12 m3/ha per year (
Take the average value of 7 m3/ha)
, Tropical plantations usually provide wheat in the range of 6-24 m3/ha per year (Average = 15 m3/ha).
8 conversion factor USEDA a stack of wood 1 m long, 1 m wide, 1 m high, total volume 1 (stacked)cubic metre (stm3).
Due to irregular clearance and air space, only about 60-70% of the volume is composed of solid wood, so the weight of wood in a pile is about between 250-600 kg/kg.
This means that the average stacking factor is 425 (kg)or 0. 43 (tonnes).
8 equivalent ratio 2.
Therefore, solid wood can be converted into stackwood using 33 tons.
In order to make a comparison and give a rough description of the order of magnitude involved, a pile of cubic meters of fuel provides one person with a year of heating and cooking, brewing 400 liters of beer and pumping a ton of fish, bake 50 catties of smoke or fry 3000 bricks as the third project needed to build standard rural housing.
10, 21 and six steps to evaluate the pesticide removal Assessment of Tobacco
The specific deforestation consists of six main steps (table 1).
The main goal is to translate the amount of solid wood required per year (in tonnes, t)
But not from private sources (
Additional or \"deficit\" wood)
Equivalent area of required wood biomass (in hectares)
And manage on a sustainable basis (using MAI)or deforested (using GS). (1)
Compared to FAO\'s latest annual 1990-95 data on global forests, World Tobacco\'s annual output
According to the change of the country, the annual output of tobacco is designated as five
Growing by Variety, the annual average is 1991-1995.
Because different tobacco requires different Wood uses, tobacco data for 7 crop varieties in about 120 developing countries were used. 19(2)
Annual tobacco production using wood crops
Specific wood demand and National wood consumption data, the share and quantity of wood used by tobacco products worldwide are derived. 10(3)
The annual solid wood required for the tobacco country to use wood each year is calculated in stackwood and subsequently converted into solid wood, standardizing rates compared to the GS and MAI specifications.
The use of wood for fuel and poles can break down crops-
Specific and purpose
Specific assessment. (4)
Additional year (deficit)
Wood required to obtain an approximation of self-degree
Adequacy of wood obtained from private sources of farmers, share and quantity of wood derived from open, accessible (common)
Unearthed land and natural forests are derived here.
10 proportion of self-produced tobacco farmers in the country
Sufficient wood (
For example, 82% of Brazil and 7% of Tanzania
Roasted tobacco growers with their own wood fuel planting
Converted into deficit wood equivalent to all tobacco needs and taken from normal land
Brazil and Tanzania are 18% and 93% respectively.
Self-assessment in 15 developing countries
Adequacy exists within the scope of 5% (Poland)to 100% (
Kenya, Congo/Zairian)
, While the average of 42% is applied in all other cases. 10(5)Sustained-
Yield area of wood biomass to be provided (4)
The value specified with wheat is equivalent to the need and assumption of continuous harvesting of wood biomass --
The production base is calculated. (6)
Equivalent area of natural woody biomass determined using GS values specified for medium woody biomass potential (
Forest, woodland, mosaic of plants)
The woodland needed, not in the ongoing
Yield basis, but completely removed (deforested)
It was calculated.
Evaluate the role of tobacco in total logging to give a rough indication of the magnitude involved, national estimates of tobacco
Specific deforestation was compared with FAO\'s national deforestation data.
16 in doing so, the FAO concept of forest cover must be implicitly used, I . e. , ecosystems with at least 10-20% canopy coverage (
Including nature and plantations)
And the FAO concept of deforestation, the depletion of canopy cover (
Compared to crops
Specific concepts of increased inventory consumption used here).
Therefore, from different definitions, the data generated can only be considered as a rough indication and need to be crossed with the reported evidence of deforestation (
Or otherwise verified).
There are 66 countries included because only developing countries with FAO
The reported deforestation is included.
In order to assess the environmental impact of tobacco on the country, critical measures for the availability of forest resources were used.
It is assumed that 1 m³ of the salary materials are required for each resident\'s cooking and other purposes every year, and the annual usable salary increases by 4 m³ (solid)
Woody biomass in the form of stems, branches and branches, which is a fairly high estimate for dry forests and woodlands (
Especially when compared to 0.
The solid wood used here is 5 M3.
Forest area 0.
25 hectares per capita need to meet the demand for salary materials on the basis of continuous production.
17 assumptions on wood use, deforestation and Greening used to calculate the main assumptions of tobacco
Induced deforestation is provided here.
First of all, unless designated as a plantation, Wood is generally considered to be extracted from native forests and is considered as a \"free commodity\" requiring no replacement costs.
Second, only in the case of a shortage of wood will the market price of wood rise to an attractive level for plantation investment.
Third, until most natural forests are destroyed, there will not be enough investment in plantation forestry.
\"8 fourth, the percentage of tobacco farmers who are known to have no private wood fuel cultivation (
Global average of 58%)
10 is used to produce tobacco using wood extracted from raw forests and forests.
Fifth, although timber and deforestation are used in some tobacco
Growth in developed countries (
Defined by FAO16)—
Romania, Japan and South Africa.
It is speculated that there is no wood in natural vegetation in developed countries.
Growth stocks are usually represented by solid measures to dry up and grow stocks (GS)
Wood biomass, usually the commercially available part of the tree, is given (solid)
The volume of wood standing in a specific area such as one hectare (0. 01u2009km2).
\"If more than the increment is cut, some of the growing stocks will be removed and the increment will be reduced in the next few years.
If this \"over-cutting\" continues, the reduction of growing trees will accelerate and the forest will eventually be completely destroyed.
8 although this process can be called forest degradation, the focus of this paper is on deforestation, which means that there will be no continued excessive deforestation (
Only a reduction in increments)
, But completely remove natural woody biomass (
Running out of growing inventory).
There are three main GS specifications that represent the low, medium and high woody biomass potential of all major ecosystems on the continent to choose from. 20 The (median)value of 27 (air-dry)
Tons per hectare (t/ha)
Medium Woody biomass was used because this type of vegetation is most common in the natural environment in which tobacco grows.
Other GS rates represent \"low woody biomass potential\", I . e. , wooded grasslands, bushes, jungles, and bushes (
Average 8 THB t/ha)
And \"high wood biomass potential \"-
Wet tropical forest, evergreen and mountain forest, coastal and gallery forest, swamp forest and mangrove forest (122u2009t/ha ).
The selected GS rate represents the average of 16 different lands
Contains (a)
\"Mosaic of low woody biomass \",(b)
Any type of woodland, I . e. , open, seasonal, dry and humid, and (c)
\"Mosaic of high woody biomass\", that is, mosaic of evergreen forest land, mosaic of cultivation and Forest/forest land, cultivation and forest regeneration, and mosaic of Highland cultivation.
The African value used is considered a growth environment similar to that of other continents.
Annual average increment term annual average increment (MAI)
Refers to the annual increase in the total volume of trees, usually expressed in the solid volume per hectare.
It is often used to indicate yield because it represents the long term
Sustainable quantity of wood that can be harvested.
8 average 0. 5 (air-dry)
T/ha is evaluated as the median of 16 land cover levels 20 per year (hypothetical)sustained-
Yield area of natural medium wood biomass required to provide wood.
For plantations, two different MAI values are used to evaluate (hypothetical)
The plantation was established.
The MAI of temperate plantations is usually within the range of 2-12 m3/ha per year (
Take the average value of 7 m3/ha)
, Tropical plantations usually provide wheat in the range of 6-24 m3/ha per year (Average = 15 m3/ha).
8 conversion factor USEDA a stack of wood 1 m long, 1 m wide, 1 m high, total volume 1 (stacked)cubic metre (stm3).
Due to irregular clearance and air space, only about 60-70% of the volume is composed of solid wood, so the weight of wood in a pile is about between 250-600 kg/kg.
This means that the average stacking factor is 425 (kg)or 0. 43 (tonnes).
8 equivalent ratio 2.
Therefore, solid wood can be converted into stackwood using 33 tons.
In order to make a comparison and give a rough description of the order of magnitude involved, a pile of cubic meters of fuel provides one person with a year of heating and cooking, brewing 400 liters of beer and pumping a ton of fish, bake 50 catties of smoke or fry 3000 bricks as the third project needed to build standard rural housing.
10, 21 and six steps to evaluate the pesticide removal Assessment of Tobacco
The specific deforestation consists of six main steps (table 1).
The main goal is to translate the amount of solid wood required per year (in tonnes, t)
But not from private sources (
Additional or \"deficit\" wood)
Equivalent area of required wood biomass (in hectares)
And manage on a sustainable basis (using MAI)or deforested (using GS). (1)
Compared to FAO\'s latest annual 1990-95 data on global forests, World Tobacco\'s annual output
According to the change of the country, the annual output of tobacco is designated as five
Growing by Variety, the annual average is 1991-1995.
Because different tobacco requires different Wood uses, tobacco data for 7 crop varieties in about 120 developing countries were used. 19(2)
Annual tobacco production using wood crops
Specific wood demand and National wood consumption data, the share and quantity of wood used by tobacco products worldwide are derived. 10(3)
The annual solid wood required for the tobacco country to use wood each year is calculated in stackwood and subsequently converted into solid wood, standardizing rates compared to the GS and MAI specifications.
The use of wood for fuel and poles can break down crops-
Specific and purpose
Specific assessment. (4)
Additional year (deficit)
Wood required to obtain an approximation of self-degree
Adequacy of wood obtained from private sources of farmers, share and quantity of wood derived from open, accessible (common)
Unearthed land and natural forests are derived here.
10 proportion of self-produced tobacco farmers in the country
Sufficient wood (
For example, 82% of Brazil and 7% of Tanzania
Roasted tobacco growers with their own wood fuel planting
Converted into deficit wood equivalent to all tobacco needs and taken from normal land
Brazil and Tanzania are 18% and 93% respectively.
Self-assessment in 15 developing countries
Adequacy exists within the scope of 5% (Poland)to 100% (
Kenya, Congo/Zairian)
, While the average of 42% is applied in all other cases. 10(5)Sustained-
Yield area of wood biomass to be provided (4)
The value specified with wheat is equivalent to the need and assumption of continuous harvesting of wood biomass --
The production base is calculated. (6)
Equivalent area of natural woody biomass determined using GS values specified for medium woody biomass potential (
Forest, woodland, mosaic of plants)
The woodland needed, not in the ongoing
Yield basis, but completely removed (deforested)
It was calculated. (1)
Compared to FAO\'s latest annual 1990-95 data on global forests, World Tobacco\'s annual output
According to the change of the country, the annual output of tobacco is designated as five
Growing by Variety, the annual average is 1991-1995.
Because different tobacco requires different Wood uses, tobacco data for 7 crop varieties in about 120 developing countries were used. 19(2)
Annual tobacco production using wood crops
Specific wood demand and National wood consumption data, the share and quantity of wood used by tobacco products worldwide are derived. 10(3)
The annual solid wood required for the tobacco country to use wood each year is calculated in stackwood and subsequently converted into solid wood, standardizing rates compared to the GS and MAI specifications.
The use of wood for fuel and poles can break down crops-
Specific and purpose
Specific assessment. (4)
Additional year (deficit)
Wood required to obtain an approximation of self-degree
Adequacy of wood obtained from private sources of farmers, share and quantity of wood derived from open, accessible (common)
Unearthed land and natural forests are derived here.
10 proportion of self-produced tobacco farmers in the country
Sufficient wood (
For example, 82% of Brazil and 7% of Tanzania
Roasted tobacco growers with their own wood fuel planting
Converted into deficit wood equivalent to all tobacco needs and taken from normal land
Brazil and Tanzania are 18% and 93% respectively.
Self-assessment in 15 developing countries
Adequacy exists within the scope of 5% (Poland)to 100% (
Kenya, Congo/Zairian)
, While the average of 42% is applied in all other cases. 10(5)Sustained-
Yield area of wood biomass to be provided (4)
The value specified with wheat is equivalent to the need and assumption of continuous harvesting of wood biomass --
The production base is calculated. (6)
Equivalent area of natural woody biomass determined using GS values specified for medium woody biomass potential (
Forest, woodland, mosaic of plants)
The woodland needed, not in the ongoing
Yield basis, but completely removed (deforested)
It was calculated.
Evaluate the role of tobacco in total logging to give a rough indication of the magnitude involved, national estimates of tobacco
Specific deforestation was compared with FAO\'s national deforestation data.
16 in doing so, the FAO concept of forest cover must be implicitly used, I . e. , ecosystems with at least 10-20% canopy coverage (
Including nature and plantations)
And the FAO concept of deforestation, the depletion of canopy cover (
Compared to crops
Specific concepts of increased inventory consumption used here).
Therefore, from different definitions, the data generated can only be considered as a rough indication and need to be crossed with the reported evidence of deforestation (
Or otherwise verified).
There are 66 countries included because only developing countries with FAO
The reported deforestation is included.
In order to assess the environmental impact of tobacco on the country, critical measures for the availability of forest resources were used.
It is assumed that 1 m³ of the salary materials are required for each resident\'s cooking and other purposes every year, and the annual usable salary increases by 4 m³ (solid)
Woody biomass in the form of stems, branches and branches, which is a fairly high estimate for dry forests and woodlands (
Especially when compared to 0.
The solid wood used here is 5 M3.
Forest area 0.
25 hectares per capita need to meet the demand for salary materials on the basis of continuous production.
17 The zaniain is low-
Income of African countries Tanzania (tables 2 and3)
The average annual tobacco production from 1991 to 1995 was 645 tons.
All varieties of tobacco grown, namely flue, generally use wood in the form of firewood and polewoodcured (81.
5% of total output), (dark)fire-cured (18. 2%), and (air-cured)
White tobacco (0. 3%).
The experiment of coal in the artificial curing of the flue failed, no cost
Effective wood substitutes have been introduced on a large scale so far.
So the flue of 100%
The tobacco leaves produced are made of wood.
Judging from the wood utilization rate of each crop variety planted (in stm3/t)—flue-curedu2009= 33. 1 (fuelu2009= 33. 0, polesu2009= 0. 1), fire-curedu2009= 37. 5 (
Fuel = 37, poles = month. 5)
, Burley Steel = 5. 0 (only polewood)
The total amount of farmwood tobacco consumption is 731 RMB 634 RMB m3 314 RMB 603 RMB t, which is :((
17 u2009 640 u2009 t 33 flue u2009 × of. 1)+ (3930u2009t of fire-curedu2009× 37. 5)+ (
The month of 75 kilt burley kilxx. 0))× 0. 43.
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 2 use of wood in tobacco production and its impact on forest resources in the developing world 3-
150,19901995 view this table: view the environmental hazards caused by the impact of tobacco on forest resources, because only 7% of tobacco farmers are known to use their own wood fuel cultivation, about 93% of all tobacco timber needs (292u2009580u2009t)
Get it from open natural forests and forests.
If managed in a sustainable manner, no more than wheat, this will be converted to 585160 hectares of natural woody biomass area (
Forest, woodland)
Need, that is, 292 580 divided by 0.
Month, or equivalent to 19 ÷ 505 u2009 ha (hypothetical)
The forest area of the plantation is 292 sqm 580 divided by 15.
In the case of assuming that the required wood biomass is completely removed by consuming GS, the number of forests and woodlands cut is 10 u2009 836 ha ha, or 2 92 u2009 580 divided by 27.
Compared with the total amount of deforestation per year during the consideration period, the share of tobacco reached 3. 4%.
Deforestation caused by tobacco planting is considered \"high\", but not \"serious\" nationwide \".
This assessment is largely confirmed by environmental criticality indicators, such as the share of forests in the total amount of land (36. 8%)
Much higher than the forest coverage required to ensure adequate supply of fuel materials (8. 4%), that is, 33. 6u2009× 0. 25.
Although land share under tobacco from 1992 to 1997 (1. 1%)
Above the global average (0. 7%)
The area of tobacco planting is much lower than that of cultivated land.
Tanzania\'s National Tobacco service said: \"There is a large amount of uncultivated land suitable for tobacco production in the country. . . [and]
By expanding the planting area, there is a great potential to increase the yield of tobacco leaves and fire-baked tobacco leaves, \"22, thus confirming the national trend of assessment.
Influence of tobacco
At the regional, provincial or regional level, the associated sense of deforestation may be greater.
For example, the area of the largest flue-Tabora/Urambo
In the country\'s producing areas, the area has long been identified as a dangerous area without mitigating the loss of natural forest cover caused by tobacco.
It is reported that in early 1990, farmers had to travel 10 kilometers in order to get wood, the impact of tobacco
In terms of clearing forests, droughts, irregular rainfall and cyclones, the relevant deserts have been seen, which were not common before in the area.
Although nearly 11 million hectares of tobacco
It is estimated that there are related deforestation throughout the country every year, and the following estimates are ranked higher.
At the end of 1980, it is predicted that the steady increase in tobacco production since independence will lead to \"over-exploitation\" of woodlands, up to 42 000000 hahaha26 (
This value is clearly related to forest degradation, that is, using not MAI but GS consumed).
Annual loss of forest cover due to tobacco baking during the agricultural season from 1989 to 1990 (
Usage of polewood is not included)
National estimates were obtained by using a laboratory design of a curing process, estimated at 000000 ha.
Siddiqui and Rajabu27 believe that tobacco baking is the second largest consumer of wood after the domestic sector, producing 4. 356 billion cubic meters of carbon dioxide and 0. 238 billion cubic meters of carbon monoxide per season.
To sum up, \"the rate of deforestation and the level of emissions of contaminated gases to the atmosphere\" is considered as a \"threat to environmental integrity \"(figure 2).
Figure 2 remaining firewood around a grill in southern Tanzania.
Estimated tractorload of wood (
About 3 tons of solid wood)
In 1997/98 seasons, tobacco extracted from ordinary woodland was used to cure the total harvest of tobacco grown on the fields around the barn.
The hills in the background have disappeared for about 35 years because of excessive tobacco baking.
Taking into account the annual quantity of wood required for tobacco planting in 1990-1995 worldwide (11.
4 million tons), half—
Mainly to treat Virginia (flue-cured tobacco)—
May not be provided from its own legitimate source (5.
7 million tons)
But from the open, accessible (common)
Land and native forest (table 1).
Assuming that the natural woody biomass region is continuous-
The mode of production, that is, no excessive cutting/over-exploitation, requires 11 for tobacco planting.
4 million hectares of natural vegetation types that typically grow tobacco (
Medium types of biomass potential such as woodland, Forest/woodland regeneration and Highland planting mosaic).
In order to replace the impact on local forests and woodlands, the equivalent is (hypothetical)
The area for planting trees is 503000000 hectares.
However, it is assumed that the lack of wood is not harvested from natural vegetation in a sustainable way, but rather less and less wood, estimated, the natural woody biomass consumed and removed by tobacco each year is 211000 MHA.
93% of tobacco
Related deforestation has occurred in developing countries in the developing world, with the reduction of the developed world 14 600600ha (
Romania, Japan, South Africa)
Assuming that the timber brought in from other sources other than the cut-down of public land is completely offset, forest coverage is lost annually due to tobacco cultivation (
In the developing world)is 196u2009400u2009ha).
Taking into account the total amount of deforestation, the cumulative net loss in the five forest regions of the world
1990-1995 was 56.
3 million hectares, net global forest losses 16 and 11. 3 million ha. Thus, tobacco-
Related deforestation reached 1.
Global net forest coverage is 7% per cent per year.
In terms of the annual rate of deforestation (0. 65% worldwide)
Tropical regions in the developing world, especially in tropical Asia/Oceania (0. 98%).
Reflecting these trends, in developing countries in Asia/Oceania, tobacco has the highest share of forest clearance (3. 7%)
Lowest in America (0. 6%).
The key position of the developing world is the foundation of 66 tobacco-growing countries in the developing world
Loss of forest cover and FAO-
Reported 16 incidents of deforestationtable 2)
It is estimated that the share of tobacco in total deforestation in 1990-1995 is 4.
National average of 6%medianu2009= 0. 7%, modeu2009= 13. 9%)“High”—
Above the global average (1. 7–13. 9%)“Medium”—
Above the median but below the global average (0. 7–1. 7%)“Low”—
Less than the median, but more than half (0. 3–0. 7%)“Minor”—
Less than half the median (
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